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This article is excerpted from the book "Kodokan Nage Waza" written by Daigo Toshiro 10dan. (Picture, Tori: Sengoku Tsuneo 7dan, Uke: Sato Tadashi 8dan)

14. Kouchi-Gaeshi (hand technique)

The technique of Kouchigaeshi (a counter throw) is dodging Uke's Kouchigari to make him off balance, then, throwing Uke to the left or right in split second by twisting his hands.

(Type 1) Dodging Uke's Kouchigari to counter throw to the left side
Tori and Uke takes the right natural posture. Uke steps left, right, left forward to keep pushing Tori's body backward. Then, stops to take a left defensive posture. Tori steps right, left, right backward. Then, stops to push Uke and returns to his original posture. At this moment, Uke reduces his pushing pressure, then, pulls his left hand. Tori will follow this move and take a right step forward. A moment before Tori steps his right foot forward, Uke executes Kouchigari. Before Uke's sweep, Tori puts his weight on his left foot and floats his right foot in the air to dodge. Uke's sweeping right foot drifts to his left because he lost his sweeping object and all of his weight goes on his left foot. Therefore, Uke loses his balance and his body leans forward . Tori, taking this opportunity, steps back his dodged right foot, then his left foot, and puts some distance between Uke and himself. He, then, turns his body by pushing up his right hand and pulling down with his left, twists Uke's body down to his right. Uke's dodged body is felled by his own spin and the twisting action of Tori's hands.

The key point of this technique is as follows: It is too difficult to dodge after Uke's Kouchigari touches Tori's right heel because Uke's sweep unbalances Tori. Therefore, it is important for Tori to forestall Uke's Kouchigari. At this moment, Tori turns his body toward Uke's drifting body and throws down by twisting. Those movements must be done in split seconds.

Sometimes, Tori twists down Uke as follows: The moment Uke executes Kouchigari, Tori lifts his right foot (standing on left foot) and, using Uke's drifting foot movement, twists down with both hands. Although, Tori is in an insecure position with his one leg up, a added twist to Uke's dodged spinning body makes an effective throw. Tori, sometimes, lifts his right foot and takes a step back to a left-handed position. He, then, using both hands twists Uke down. When Uke's body is completely off balance, it is not necessary for Tori to step back his left foot and turn his body to left like Type I.

Next technique is not a Kouchigaeshi. In the case where Tori dodges Uke's right Kouchigari, and if his lifted right foot touches Uke's left knee to throw, it is called Hizakuruma (foot technique). In the same way, when Tori dodges Uke's Kouchigari but steps back his right foot to support his body and sweeps with his left foot the sweeping feet of Uke, it is called Deashi-harai.
(Type 2) Evade Uke's Kouchigari, then, counter throw Uke to the right (Kouchigaeshi)
Tori and Uke hold each other in the right natural posture. Uke steps forward to make Tori off balance. Tori steps back to follow Uke's pushing. The moment Tori steps back his left foot and right foot, Uke tries to throw Tori with Kouchigari. Before Uke's sweep, Tori steps back his left foot to take some distance from Uke and while keeping his balance, he lightly lifts his right foot to evade Uke's Kouchigari. Uke misses his sweep, therefore, he tries to push Tori backward, to throw him down. At this moment, Tori steps back his evaded right foot to take more distance from Uke. He, then, drops his hip and using both hands to pull Uke forward to make him off balance. While pulling down his right hand, he pushes his left hand and turns his body to the right and throws down Uke in the direction of his left foot forward. Uke falls in a circular motion with his left toe as the spinning point. Sometimes, Tori twists down Uke with just hands, without turning his body.

Tori also twists his body to his left, then, twist down Uke to his right forward.
(Type 2) - Uke tries to hook his right foot to Tori's right foot, then, push forward to throw Tori down, in order not to lose his balance like (Type 1). Therefore, Tori must take a big step backward to make Uke off balance forward, then, Tori twists Uke down. To define these techniques, I used the word dodge for (Type 1) and evade for (Type 2).
(Type 3) Difference between Kouchigaeshi and Ukiotoshi
Kouchigaeshi - Dodge or evade Uke's Kouchigari to make him off balance. Then, twist (or pull) his body to the left or right to throw down.
Ukiotoshi - Make Uke's body off balance to his forward, then, pull (or twist) him to throw. The common point to these techniques is that both ends up as Ukiotoshi. The determining factor is who initiates the first move. However, there are the following problems. To avoid some contradiction in naming the technique, the Kodokan Waza Study Group Department agreed to determine the name by the last ending throw. In such case, techniques such as, Hizaguruma and Deashi-harai, are categorized as Ukiotoshi instead of Kouchigaeshi. Therefore, some contradictions exists. Regarding this problem, the Kodokan Waza Study Group Department decided to add kaeshi or sukashi to wazas, such as, Kaeshiwaza, Uranage, and Sukashiwaza. For example, if Tori counter throws Uke's Osotogari, it is not called Osotogari. It is called Osotogaeshi. The same applies to Kaeshiwaza, Ouchigaeshi, Haraigoshigaeshi, and Uchimatasukashi.

There are two types of techniques from Uke's Kouchigari. (1) When Tori dodges or evades Uke's Kouchigari and throws with Ukiotoshi, it is called Kouchigaeshi. (2) When Tori forestalls Uke's Kouchigari and throws Uke by stepping back to twist Uke down, it is called Ukiotoshi. Therefore, it is very difficult to define these two techniques. It depends on the observer.
(Type 4) The study and discussion of the name of Kouchigaeshi
When the Kodokan Waza Study Group Department studied the new throwing techniques, they analyzed the meaning of the word, kaeshi. There are many throwing techniques that are named with kaeshi. In October of 1982, seventeen new techniques were named. Of those seventeen, eight included the word kaeshi, such as Kouchigaeshi, Ouchigaeshi, Osotogaeshi, Tsubamegaeshi, Hanegoshigaeshi, Haraigoshigaeshi, Uchimatagaeshi, Kibisugaeshi. In the existing forty-eight (Gokyonowaza), there are three kaeshis, such as Sumigaeshi, Tawaragaeshi, Hikkomigaeshi bringing the total to eleven. In the dictionary, Kojien, published by Iwanami Book Store, the meaning of kaeshi is defined as follows. (Reverse position from top to bottom or overturn, topple over, duplicating the movement received from others.) When we study the concept of kaeshi techniques, there are many movements among them which are different. Wazas, such as Kibisugaeshi, Sumigaeshi, Tawaragaeshi, Hikkomigaeshi, are initiated by Tori and continue on to overturn Uke. In general, the meaning of kaeshi is widely used in techniques initiated by Uke, such as, kaeshiwaza, uranage, sukashiwaza. There are seven techniques initiated by Uke, which includes Kouchigaeshi.

-There are kaeshiwazas where the strength of Uke is countered by Tori in the opposite way, such as, Osotogaeshi.
-By countering Uke's attack, the change is made to Ouchigaeshi.
-Dodge or evade Uke's throwing techniques to change to a counter throw.

The technique of Kouchigaeshi is a hand technique, accomplished by dodging and evading Uke's Kouchigari to throw him off balance and using both hands to twist and throw down. In considering the kaeshi of Kouchigaeshi, one would imagine Kouchigari to be reversed with Kouchigari. In order to avoid this misconception, it would be better to call it Kouchisukashi. It is very difficult to analyze the meaning of kaeshi, since this word is widely used in techniques. Since these eight kaeshi techniques were used previously for many years and were vividly expressed, the Kodokan Waza Study Group Department decided to leave it as it is.
Information for books; Nage Waza (Japanese), Throwing Technique (English) are not available (discontinued in 2012).