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This article is excerpted from the book "Kodokan Nage Waza" written by Daigo Toshiro 10dan. (Picture, Tori: Sengoku Tsuneo 7dan, Uke: Sato Tadashi 8dan)

13. Kibisu-Gaeshi (hand technique)

In the technique, Kibisu-gaeshi, Tori lowers his body and grabs Uke's heel from the inside or outside with one hand and sweeps Uke down backward in a split second. Also, techniques that are similar to this technique.

(Type 1) Tori grabs Uke's right heel from the inside with his right hand and sweeps down (Kibisu-gaeshi)
Tori and Uke hold each other in right natural posture. Tori steps forward left, right, left, to make Uke off balance backward. Uke steps back right, left, right. He, then, take a left defensive posture to push Tori back and tries to go back to a secured posture. Tori reduces the pressure of both pushing hands and pulls his left hand. Uke, in turn, pushes Tori by stepping right foot forward. At this moment, Tori lowers his body by stepping back his left foot, right foot and places his right knee on the mat. Then, Tori uses his right hand to hook Uke's heel. At this point, Tori's left foot is placed on the outside of Uke's right foot. Then, Tori turns his body slightly to the right. The moment Uke shifts his weight on his right foot, Tori pulls his right hand toward himself to sweep down backward as he pulls his left hand straight down.

The key point of this technique is as follows. It is not necessary for Tori to put his knee down on the mat. But to hook Uke's right heel quickly, he needs to lowers his body to get closer. The timing of the sweeping of the heel with right hand, pulling of the left hand straight down the precise time Uke shifts his weight is most important. If Tori misses this timing, Uke is able to support his body with his left foot by just lifting his right foot to escape from Tori's sweep. It is too late to sweep Uke's right foot after Uke's shifts his weight onto his right foot. Usage of Tori's right hand is not to pull upward but to pull outward to widen the space between Uke's leg and cause him to lose his balance backwards. The concept of this technique is the same as Kouchigari. The only difference is the use of the hand instead of the foot when Tori sweeps Uke's foot.

Techniques of practical applications
1. Change from your own throwing techniques to Kibisu-gaeshi

(1) Tori pretends to execute right Ipponseoinage, then change to Kibisu-gaeshi

Tori pretends to execute right Ipponseoinage, then steps his right foot to the outside of Uke's right foot, to use as spinning point. Tori, then, turns his body 360 degrees to the left. Tori steps his left foot to the outside of Uke's right foot. Tori lowers his body and closes into Uke's right foot. He, then, grabs Uke's right heel from the inside with his right hand and sweeps him down. The purpose of this technique is to deceive Uke into thinking Ipponseoinage is going to be executed where as Kibisu-gaeshi is the primary objective. Therefore, Tori should have some distance between Uke and himself to be able to spin his body to pick him up.

(2) When Uke evades Tori's Ipponseoinage by stepping forward, Tori takes that opportunity to execute Kibisu-gaeshi

Tori picks up Uke with Ipponseoinage. As Uke's body floats upward, he evades the throw by stepping his right foot forward. At this moment, Tori grabs Uke's right heel from the inside with his right hand and sweeps down. To succeed with this throw, Tori must execute a powerful Ipponseoinage. When Uke steps his right foot forward for defense, Tori must execute the technique the instance Uke loses his balance. Also, Seoinage to Kibisu-gaeshi can be used.

(3) The change from Kataguruma to Kibisu-gaeshi

When Tori tries to pick up Uke with Kataguruma, Uke leans his upper body backward for defense. At this moment, Tori turns his body to face Uke. Then, he steps his left foot beside the outside of Uke's right foot and lowers his body to grab Uke's right heel from the inside with his right hand and sweeps down. It is easy to change from Kataguruma to Kibisu-gaeshi since Tori's right hand is already holding Uke's leg. It is important that Tori must catch the right moment when Uke leans his body backward. When Tori throws Uke by holding his leg, it is called Kuchiki-taoshi.

(4) From Deashi-harai to Kibisu-gaeshi

Tori tries to make Uke step his right foot forward so he can sweep with Deashiharai. However, Uke evades this sweep by lifting his leg for defense. At this moment, Tori grabs Uke's right heel from the inside with his right hand, then, scoops up and sweeps down in a split second. In this situation, Uke is able to defense by just lifting his right foot. Therefore, Tori must push Uke down in a split second.

(5) From Tomoenage to Kibisu-gaeshi

When Tori executes Tomoenage, Uke drops his hip and steps his right foot forward for defense. Tori raises his body, steps his right foot back and places the knee on the mat. He, then, raises his left knee and grabs Uke's right heel from the inside with his right hand and sweeps him down. This technique is applicable when you are defending against your opponent's attack or when you are applying a offensive technique while you are in the position of kneeling in front of Uke's feet. During the Meiji or Taisho Era, these types of techniques were valid in competition. But, according to the present rule, it is not a valid throw if Tori throws Uke from a lying position.

2. The change from Uke's throwing techniques to Kibisu-gaeshi

From Oguruma to Kibisu-gaeshi

When Uke executes Oguruma, Tori steps back his right foot and turns his body to the right for defense by dropping his hip. Then, Tori grabs Uke's right heel from the inside with the right hand and scoops up. He, then, steps his left foot behind Uke and pushes him down. The technique of Oguruma is normally the sweeping of Tori's lower part of the stomach which allows Tori to easily grab Uke's heel. However, it is difficult to scoop up the heel since Uke's leg is already in a higher position. So, Tori must push Uke backward to complete a throw.

(Type 2) Tori grabs Uke's right heel from the outside with his left hand to throw Kibisu-gaeshi
Tori and Uke hold each other in a right natural posture. Tori steps back, right, left, right to pull Uke left, right, left. Then, Tori takes left defensive posture by pushing down both hands. Uke responds by stopping and takes a left defensive posture. At this time, Tori reduces pressure in both hands and pushes his right hand. Uke steps his left foot back to take a secured posture. At this moment, Tori changes his right grip to the inside of Uke's right collar and pulls Uke toward himself with both hands. Tori lowers his body by stepping his right foot between Uke's leg to take a right defensive posture. Then, he hooks his left hand behind the outside of Uke's right heel. The moment Uke tries to step back his right foot, Tori pulls his left hand to sweep. At the same time, he pushes his right hand.

The reason for changing his right grip on the collar is to prohibit Uke's response of lifting his right leg and to concentrate all the strength into pushing Uke to his right back. It is very important that Tori have the right timing to grab Uke's heel which is a second before Uke steps back his right foot. When Uke responded by lifting his right foot for defense, Tori must be able to push Uke down backward quickly. The concept of this technique is the same as Kouchigari. The only difference is sweeping with the hand or foot.

Techniques of practical applications
1. Change from your own throwing technique to Kibisu-gaeshi

(1) The change from Kouchigari to Kibisu-gaeshi

When Tori tries to execute Kouchigari but Uke lifts his right foot for defense by supporting his body with his left foot, Tori grabs Uke's right heel from the outside with his left hand and sweeps up and pushes Uke down . Sometimes, Uke responses by stepping back his left foot and lifting his right foot to put some distance between himself and Tori to regain his balance and posture. Therefore, Tori must dash swiftly forward.

(2) The change from Ouchigari to Kibisu-gaeshi

When Tori tries to executes Ouchigari but Uke steps back his right foot to support his body and lifts his left foot for defense, Tori immediately grabs Uke's left heel from the outside with his right hand and scoops up and pushes him down. It is important that Tori pushes Uke in a split second.

(3) The change from Seioinage to Kibisu-gaeshi

Tori executes Seioinage to pick up Uke into the air but Uke steps his right foot forward for defense. At this moment, Tori grabs Uke's right ankle with his left hand and sweeps down. When Uke steps his right foot forward for defense, his right foot carrying his weight will falter. At which moment, Tori will grab Uke's right ankle from the front with his left hand and push out his right hand and throw him down.

(4) The change from Uchimata to Kibisu-gaeshi

When Tori executes Uchimata to flip up Uke's body, Uke leans right forward for defense. At this moment, Tori grabs Uke's right ankle from the front with his left hand and sweeps him down. It is important that the change is made smoothly from Uchimata.

2. The change from Uke's throwing techniques to Kibisu-gaeshi

(1) The change from Hizaguruma to Kibisu-gaeshi

The moment Uke executes Hizaguruma, Tori steps his right foot in between Uke's legs and grabs Uke's right heel from the outside with his left hand and scoops up and pushes him down. As Tori pushes Uke's left shoulder with his right hand, he also scoops up Uke's heel with his left hand and pushes down.

(Type 3) Use both hands to grab Uke's right heel to execute Kibisu-gaeshi
The technique of Maegeri in self defense

Uke attempts to kick Tori's groin when they approach each other. Tori evades Uke's kick by stepping back his right foot and turns his body to his right and grabs Uke's ankle from the bottom with his left hand. He, then, grabs Uke's right instep with his right hand. He, then, using both hands scoops Uke's right foot to flip him over onto his back. If the timing of execution is perfect, Uke will fall onto the back of his head sharply. However, in kata performance, Tori pushes Uke down backward. Although this is a kata techniques, the possibility is there to use in randori practice. Generally Kibisu-gaeshi is understood as a technique using only one hand to grab the heel but the use of both hands can also be considered Kibisu-gaeshi.

(Type 4) Difference between Kibisu-gaeshi & Kuchiki-taoshi
Kibisu-gaeshi: Tori grabs Uke's one heel and scoops up and throws down in split- second.
Kuchiki-taoshi: Tori holds Uke's one leg and pulls up and pushes him down in split-second.
Basically, the difference between these two techniques is where Tori grabs, heel or leg. Normally, in Kibisu-gaeshi, Uke must be thrown in a split-second. Therefore, if in the case where Tori grabs Uke's heel and pushes and throws instead of throwing immediately, it is called Kuchigaeshi. There upon, the referee will make the decision. This was confirmed by Kodokan Waza Study Group on November 29, 1984.

(Type 5) The Kibisu-gaeshi created by Professor Kyuzo Mifune, 8th Dan
The above technique was described by Kodokan Judo magazine, December 1934 by Mr. Daido Matsuoka as follows: "Currently, there is no technique such as Kibisu-gaeshi in Judo. What kind of technique can this be? No one seems to be able to imagine. It is because this technique was recently studied and created by Mifune, 8th Dan.
In those days, Judo practice was performed in natural posture and based on standing techniques. Therefore, there were few opportunities to execute this technique. However, these days, the mat work techniques have improved in Judo where lying down, standing, separating, placing the head on the opponents is allowed in competition making techniques such as this more applicable.

The concept of this technique is similar to Kouchigari or Deashi-harai. Kouchigari and Deashi-harai are executed from a standing position. However, Kibisu-gaeshi can be executed from a bending position or from kneeling position. Because this technique is unfamiliar to many people, some people may consider it to be a dirty technique but in actuality it is an interesting technique."
"Even though this Kibisu-gaeshi was created by Professor Mifune, 8th Dan, the real effect is unknown. Therefore, further study is necessary. Nevertheless, we must commend his effort and creation of this technique."
Professor Mifune, 8th Dan's sneak attack on Professor Tabata, 8th Dan by Kibisu-gaeshi

In May 1934, Celebration of newly born Prince Judo Tournament was held in Saineikan Dojo. At this tournament Professor Kyuzo Mifune, 8th Dan, (later 10th Dan) and Professor Shotaro Tabata, 8th Dan, (later 10th Dan) (a top ranking judoist in the western part of Japan) fought each other. Prof. Mifune's sneak attack on Prof. Tabata with Kibisu-gaeshi caught everyone's attention. According to All Japan Judo History (published in 1938) this tournament was described. In the book the part of Kibisu-gaeshi was described as follows: Both players fought very well. Tabata executed sharp Deashi-harai and Kouchigari. Mifune lost his balance and bent his body for defense. Then, suddenly, Mifune grabbed Tabata's right heel with his right hand and Tabata falls on his bottom abruptly. In this match Tabata exhibited good offense and Mifune demonstrated excellent defense. It ended in a draw but it was an excellent match.

Professor Kyutaro Kanda, 6th Dan's Kibisu-gaeshi

In the All Japan Judo History's section of Kibisu-gaeshi, Concept and Practical Application, Professor Eisaku Iiyama, 5th Dan (later 8th Dan) describes his match with Professor Kyutaro Kanda, 6th Dan, (later 9th Dan) as follows: In 1934, the red and white tournament between Naichi (mainland of Japan) and Gaichi (outside of Japan, such as Manchuria) was held. Kanda, 6th Dan, grabbed Iiyama's right middle sleeve with his left hand and lightly moved without using his right hand. Then, he tried his favorite Kataguruma. Iiyama, 5th Dan, stepped back his left foot for his defense. At this moment, Kanda grabs Iiyama's right heel with his right hand and pulls toward his right backward and at the same time pulls his left hand straight down. Then, Iiyama's body fell straight backward like a ball and Iiyama's legs stuck straight up in the air like electric poles. This Kibisu-gaeshi seems to be very effective for ippon or wazaari. However, Referee Yamashita, 9th Dan, (later 10th Dan) did not call anything.

According to Ippon rules it could have been call an ippon since it was a good bounce and, also, fell straight on his back The only thing in question was the falling speed, whether it fast or slow. This decision rests with the referee. Kanda is well known for his Kataguruma and, also, the combination of Kataguruma and Kibisu-gaeshi was his favorite techniques. The result of this match, Kanda lost to Iiyama by Uchimata. On October 1987, Kibisu-gaeshi was officially named and recognized as a throwing technique by Kodokan.
Information for books; Nage Waza (Japanese), Throwing Technique (English) are not available (discontinued in 2012).